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(Image credit: LANES EPFL) Revolutionary 2D Quantum Cooling System Achieves Ultra-Low Temperatures

Revolutionary 2D Quantum Cooling System Achieves Ultra-Low Temperatures


Quantum computing is poised to revolutionize technology, offering unprecedented computational power. However, this potential comes with significant challenges, one of the most critical being the need for extremely low temperatures to maintain qubit stability. Recently, a groundbreaking 2D quantum cooling system developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) has emerged as a promising solution, achieving temperatures colder than outer space by converting heat into electrical voltage.

What are Qubits?

Qubits are the fundamental units of quantum computers, analogous to bits in classical computers. Unlike bits, which can be either 0 or 1, qubits can exist in multiple states simultaneously due to the principles of superposition and entanglement. This allows quantum computers to perform complex calculations at unprecedented speeds.

The Importance of Low Temperatures

To function correctly, qubits must be kept at temperatures below 100 millikelvins (mK), which is colder than the deepest reaches of outer space. Any thermal energy can disturb the delicate quantum states, leading to errors in computations.

Heat Generation and Its Effects on Qubits

Quantum-computing systems generate heat through their electronic components, which can interfere with qubit stability. Unlike conventional computers, quantum systems lack efficient mechanisms to dissipate this heat without affecting performance.

Conventional Cooling Methods and Their Limitations

Traditional cooling methods, such as cryogenics, struggle to maintain the ultra-low temperatures required for quantum computing. These methods often involve separating heat-generating electronics from the quantum circuits, leading to inefficiencies and noise that hamper large-scale applications.

Development by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL)

Researchers at EPFL’s Laboratory of Nanoscale Electronics and Structures (LANES) have developed a 2D quantum cooling system that addresses these challenges. Led by Andras Kis, the team has achieved a significant breakthrough in cooling technology.

Overview of the 2D Cooling System

This 2D quantum cooling system can reduce temperatures to 100 mK by converting heat into electrical voltage, matching the efficiency of conventional cooling technologies at room temperature.

The Nernst Effect

The system operates using the Nernst effect, a thermomagnetic phenomenon where a conductor exposed to a magnetic field and differing temperatures generates an electrical field. This effect is harnessed to convert thermal energy into electrical voltage, cooling the system effectively.

Materials Used: Graphene and Indium Selenide

The cooling device is constructed from graphene and indium selenide, materials chosen for their exceptional electrical conductivity and semiconductor properties. These materials are only a few atoms thick, enabling the device to function as a two-dimensional object.

Structure and Composition

The 2D cooling system comprises an indium selenide channel with graphene electrodes. The thin structure of the device allows for highly efficient cooling at ultra-low temperatures.

Performance Metrics

The device operates efficiently at low magnetic fields and temperatures, achieving cooling performance on par with existing technologies but at much colder conditions suitable for quantum computing.

Comparison with Conventional Cooling Systems

Compared to traditional cooling methods, the 2D system offers several advantages, including improved efficiency and the ability to maintain ultra-low temperatures without separating heat-generating components from quantum circuits.

Benefits of the 2D System

The 2D cooling system’s efficiency and compatibility with existing quantum computing setups make it a significant advancement. It reduces noise and inefficiencies, paving the way for more practical and scalable quantum computing applications.

Testing Procedures

The EPFL team tested the 2D cooling device using a dilution refrigerator stabilized at 100 mK. They introduced a laser to heat the system and observed the cooling effects of the device.

Results and Findings

The experiments confirmed that the 2D device could convert heat into electricity and maintain ultra-low temperatures effectively, demonstrating its potential for practical use in quantum computing.

Potential Impact on Quantum Computer Performance

By maintaining the necessary low temperatures, the 2D cooling system can significantly enhance quantum computer performance, enabling more stable and reliable operations.

Scalability and Practical Applications

The ability to integrate this cooling technology into existing systems suggests a scalable solution for quantum computing, potentially transforming how these powerful machines are developed and utilized.

Advancements in Quantum Cooling Technologies

The success of the 2D cooling system opens the door for further advancements in quantum cooling technologies, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in this field.

Integration with Existing Systems

The ease of incorporating this technology into current quantum computing setups means that it can be widely adopted, accelerating the development and deployment of quantum computers.

The Research Process

The development of the 2D quantum cooling system was a collaborative effort involving extensive research and experimentation. The LANES team meticulously explored various materials and methods to achieve their breakthrough.

Key Milestones

Significant milestones included the successful demonstration of the Nernst effect at ultra-low temperatures and the creation of a device that matches the conversion efficiency of existing technologies at these temperatures.

Applications Beyond Quantum Computing

While the primary application is in quantum computing, the 2D cooling system could also benefit other technologies that require precise temperature control, such as advanced sensors and nanoelectronics.

Potential for Other Technologies

The principles and materials used in this cooling system could inspire new cooling solutions across various fields, enhancing the performance and reliability of numerous electronic devices.


The development of the 2D quantum cooling system by EPFL represents a significant leap forward in quantum computing technology. By converting heat into electrical voltage, this system achieves temperatures colder than outer space, ensuring the stability and performance of qubits. As we continue to explore the potential of quantum computing, innovations like this will be crucial in overcoming existing challenges and unlocking new possibilities.


What is a 2D Quantum Cooling System?

A 2D Quantum Cooling System is a device that reduces temperatures to ultra-low levels by converting heat into electrical voltage, utilizing materials only a few atoms thick.

How does the Nernst Effect contribute to cooling?

The Nernst Effect generates an electrical field in a conductor with differing temperatures on each side and a magnetic field, which is used to convert thermal energy into electrical voltage for cooling.

What are the main materials used in this cooling system?

The system primarily uses graphene and indium selenide, chosen for their excellent electrical conductivity and semiconductor properties.

How does this innovation impact the future of quantum computing?

By maintaining necessary low temperatures, the 2D cooling system enhances the stability and performance of quantum computers, making them more practical and scalable.

Can the 2D cooling system be used in other applications?

Yes, the principles and materials used in the 2D cooling system could benefit other technologies requiring precise temperature control, such as advanced sensors and nanoelectronics.


Read more: Alitech Blog

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Zeeshan Ali Shah is a professional blog writer at AliTech Solutions, renowned for crafting engaging and informative content. He holds a degree from the University of Sindh, where he honed his expertise in technology. With a keen eye for detail and a passion for staying up-to-date on the latest tech trends, Zeeshan’s writing provides valuable insights to his readers. His expertise in the tech industry makes him a sought-after writer, and his work at AliTech Solutions has earned him a reputation as a trusted and knowledgeable voice in the field.

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